In a study published in the American Journal of Infectious Diseases, researchers from Baylor University and the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill examined the safety and effectiveness of three of the most commonly used vaccines, MMR, DPT, and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTaP), in the United States and around the world.
In their report, they found that each vaccine had its own risks and benefits, and that it was likely a combination of factors that would influence the overall safety of vaccines, and not an inherent flaw in the vaccine itself.
They say their study, which was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, “is a landmark study that confirms the benefits of vaccines against many infectious diseases and shows that vaccines are safe and effective for protecting against many common infections and diseases.”
The researchers, led by Baylor associate professor of immunology and virology Dr. Joseph J. Miller, studied the effectiveness of the four vaccines administered to 1,600 children in the US between 2003 and 2015, to find out whether the benefits outweighed the risks.
The researchers compared the immunization rates of children who received each vaccine against those of those who received placebo, and found that vaccine recipients were significantly less likely to be hospitalized for pneumonia, pneumonia pneumonia, and meningitis than placebo recipients.
They also found that the rates of pneumonia were significantly lower for children vaccinated with diphtetan-emtricitabine (DEET), diphthetoxine (DT), or both, compared with placebo.
The authors found that diphthymidine-containing diphts, which are administered in combination with dosing regimens, had no effect on rates of hospitalization.
The other two vaccines were the MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) and DPT (diphtheries, tetanus toxoids).
Both were developed in the 1930s and 1960s, and each vaccine has been in widespread use since then.
Both vaccines are administered by a single dose, which is administered in two stages.
The first stage of the vaccination is administered through a finger prick.
The second stage is administered by injection or nasal spray, and lasts 10 minutes.
Both vaccines are contraindicated for people who have had a reaction to any of the following:a) tetanusb) diphTH, tet, or tetanus-toxoidsc) meningococcal diseased) tuberculosis, Haemophilus influenzae type beccal cancer, toxoplasmosis, or HIV/AIDSe) certain cancers and certain autoimmune diseasesf) influenza, meningovirus, or other influenza-related complicationsThe researchers note that although each vaccine can prevent an infection in some people, they do not recommend vaccination for anyone at risk of an infection, including those with serious health conditions.
A similar study from the University in Texas found that two vaccines, DTaP and DTP, could be effective against some forms of tuberculosis, while other studies have found no effect.
The results of this study “have significant implications for the safety of all vaccines, including the diphthanumab and the dTP vaccine,” the researchers write.
However, the authors note that it is important to remember that the vaccine may not be effective in all cases, and “in particular, that the efficacy of these vaccines cannot be completely established until further studies are conducted.”
Miller said that while he and his colleagues were able to compare the rates at which vaccination rates decreased in the vaccinated versus the unvaccinated group, they cannot prove causality.
“In terms of causation, I can’t prove that the un-vaccinated were better protected, but it’s certainly possible that some vaccine was not as effective as the vaccinated,” he said.
“The fact that we found statistically significant protective effect from each vaccine is not conclusive.
We can’t make a causal connection between vaccination and protection against infection.
That would require replication, which would require a large number of studies.”
The study also found some unexpected effects of vaccination on vaccine effectiveness.
Vaccine recipients who received diphthylamine-containing vaccines had higher rates of respiratory infections compared to those who had received placebo.
This finding suggests that the immune system might react differently to diphths-containing viruses than to those that are tetanus or diphtha.
Miller and his co-authors acknowledge that this study was based on small numbers of children, and it is not yet possible to determine the true impact of vaccination for the general population.